Sunday, December 30, 2012

Where in the world? A geography quiz for travelers

From the Seattle Times:  Where in the world? A geography quiz for travelers

It’s that time of year again when we roll out NWTraveler’s annual geography quiz. So sharpen your pencil, and your mind, and test your knowledge of places near and far.
1. What two major rivers flow by Portland?
2. What town is at the southwest tip of Washington?
3. Name at least four Western Washington rivers ending in “mish.”
4. Americans sometimes call them “the Canadian San Juans.” What’s the real name of the islands?
5. Which is farther north, Bellingham, Wash., or Victoria, B.C.?
6. What is the highest mountain in Olympic National Park?
7. The Washington town of Metaline Falls is on which river?
8. Which state has a bigger population, Washington or Oregon?
9. What is the overall name for the inland marine waters of southwest British Columbia and northwest Washington?
10. What national forest covers much of the northwest Cascades in Washington?
1. Which country is larger in area, the United States or Brazil?
2. What island nation sits off southern India?
3. Name at least three countries that border Kenya.
4. What body of water divides Alaska and Russia?
5. Name two landlocked South American countries.
1. The capital of Idaho has a name derived from French. What is it?
2. Name the four U.S. state capitals whose names include the word “City.”
3. What four state capitals were named for U.S. presidents?
4. What state capital has the largest population within its city limits?
5. Name at least five state capitals situated on saltwater.
1.What is the capital of Malaysia?
2. Name the capital of Brazil.
3. What is the capital of Bhutan?
4. What is Australia’s capital?
5. Name the capital of Costa Rica.
1. Name at least three of the five national parks in Utah.
2. How many states are there in Mexico?
3. What is the second biggest Italian island?
4. Where will the 2014 Winter Olympics be held?
5. What is the second biggest Hawaiian island after the Big Island?

1. Columbia River and Willamette River.
2. Ilwaco, Pacific County.
3. Duwamish, Snohomish, Skykomish, Stillaguamish, Skokomish, Samish, Sammamish.
4. The Gulf Islands (in British Columbia).
5. Bellingham.
6. Mount Olympus (7,980 feet).
7. Pend Oreille River.
8. Washington (approximately 6.8 million people; Oregon has 3.8 million).
9. Salish Sea.
10: Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest.
1. The United States (3.79 million square miles vs. Brazil’s 3.28 million).
2. Sri Lanka.
3. Ethiopia, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda and South Sudan border Kenya.
4. The Bering Strait.
5. Paraguay and Bolivia.
1. Boise (derived from the French for “trees” or “wooded”).
2. Carson City (Nev.), Jefferson City (Mo.), Oklahoma City (Okla.), Salt Lake City (Utah).
3. Jackson, Miss.; Jefferson City, Mo.; Lincoln, Neb.; Madison, Wis.
4. Phoenix, Ariz. (1,469,471, according to 2011 census figures).
5. Annapolis, Md.; Boston, Mass.; Honolulu, Hawaii; Juneau, Alaska; Olympia, Wash.; Providence, R.I. (Bonus point: Salt Lake City, Utah, touches a marsh at the edge of the Great Salt Lake.)
1. Kuala Lumpur.
2. Brasilia.
3. Thimphu.
4. Canberra.
5. San Jose.
1. Arches, Bryce Canyon, Canyonlands, Capitol Reef and Zion national parks.
2. 31 states plus the federal district of Mexico City.
3. Sardinia (Sicily is the biggest).
4. Sochi, Russia.
5. Maui (727 square miles compared to the Big Island’s 4,028 square miles)


Tuesday, December 25, 2012

Geography in the News: Lake-Effect Snow

From National Geographic:  Geography in the News: Lake-Effect Snow

Lake-effect snow has arrived around the Great Lakes as winter has finally come to the Midwest.
During a single 1995 December storm, Buffalo, N.Y., received 40 inches of snow. Although this was a heavy snow, it was not a record for Buffalo. Buffalo’s geographic location places it in position to receive some of the Eastern United States’ heaviest urban snowfalls. The ring of snowfall that occurs around the east side of the Great Lakes is a phenomenon called lake‑effect snow.
Buffalo is located on the eastern shore of Lake Erie in western New York State. The city is on a relatively flat glacial lake plain, to the northwest of the Allegheny portion of the Appalachian Plateau. The plain formed when a remnant of the Pleistocene continental glacier blocked the northern drainage of the St. Lawrence River, backing up water into a huge ice-dammed lake..
           The lake finally spilled through the Mohawk Valley into the Hudson River Valley and exited at present‑day New York City. The valley became a glacial spillway. Today it is a broad, flat valley occupied by the tiny Mohawk River.
Buffalo’s growth was stimulated by its location at the eastern end of Lake Erie and at the western end of the Mohawk Valley. The Erie Canal, following the Mohawk, was completed in 1825 and served as a water link between New York City and Buffalo. Freight rates for shipping between Buffalo and New York City immediately dropped by 95 percent and travel time between the two cities decreased by more than half. This meant that nearly all goods traveling by land or water between New York City and the Midwest had to go through Buffalo.
Despite deep snows and winter winds from the lake, Buffalo ‑‑ today a city of  more than 621,000 people ‑‑ grew and prospered.
One look at a map of the region confirms that Buffalo is the only major city on an eastern shore of one of the Great Lakes. In fact, only a few small towns are found on the east sides of the lakes. Snowy winters and high lake winds are common in these locations, largely as a result of a lake‑effect.
Lake‑effect snows result from cold, dry winter winds sweeping from Canada across unfrozen lakes. As they cross open water, the winds evaporate some moisture and become warmer. When the moist air reaches the east sides of the lakes, the air is forced to rise abruptly over the land and the colder air above the land. The results are exceptional snowfalls in bands along the southeast sides of the lakes, often accompanied by the unusual winter phenomena of thunder and lightning.
The most dramatic effect normally extends up to 70 miles (113 km) inland from the lakes, but bands of light snow and flurries may extend as far away as the ski resort at Snowshoe, W.Va., on the Appalachian Plateau.
Most winter air from Canada is very dry and generally brings only flurries, except on the leeward sides of the unfrozen Great Lakes. Moisture for most heavy snowfalls in the Eastern United States ‑‑ outside of the areas having lake‑effect snows ‑‑ comes from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean.
Lake‑effect snows around the Great Lakes begin to cease when the Great Lakes mostly freeze over, usually by February. An interesting feature about the freezing of lakes is that all the water in the lake must cool to 39 degrees F (4 C) before the surface can cool to 32 F (0 C) and freeze. The result is that a shallow lake–such as Lake Erie, the shallowest of the five lakes–freezes over earlier and more frequently than the other Great Lakes.
Buffalo’s average annual snowfall is nearly 100 inches (2.5 m), but some surprising snowfalls have taken place in lake‑effect locations. For example, Oswego, near the east end of Lake Ontario, received 101 inches (2.56 m) in five days in 1966. Buffalo received 48 inches (1.2 m) in one day in 1937. During the blizzard of 1977, Buffalo received over 120 inches (3 m) by the end of January, with February and March yet to go.
Few who have witnessed a heavy Buffalo snowfall accompanied by thunder and lightning ever forget it.


Wednesday, December 19, 2012

New posting schedule

Now that I've got this new full-time job, I'll be posting in this blog twice a week - on Monday's and Wednesdays.

So the next post for this blog will be on Monday.

Thanks for your patience.

Monday, December 17, 2012

Posts resume this Wednesday

I'm a freelance writer and I am way behind on a job I have to do, so I won't be posting here until Wednesday..

Thanks for your patience!

Monday, December 10, 2012

Geography in the News: Storm Surge Threats

From National Geographic:  Geography in the News: Storm Surge Threats

Superstorm Sandy sent a storm surge of 13 feet (4 m) onto New Jersey’s and New York’s fragile shorelines, creating chaos and widespread misery for coastal inhabitants. Examining experiences with hurricanes Katrina and more recently Irene, storm surges clearly create more damage than wind and rain during these tropical and middle latitude cyclones.
Storm surges are associated with high winds over water. Wind over open water can bring not only high water surging onto a shoreline, but the surge, combined with intense wave action, can pummel shoreline structures. Parts of demolished structures then become battering rams with the surging water and waves destroying even more structures.
Virtually all ocean swells and waves are created by wind over water. As wind speed increases, the height between the tops of swells and the troughs that separate them increases. As the swells reach the shallow waters of coastal areas, drag created at the bottoms of swells slows their movement, creating breaking waves along the shore.
The faster the wind, the larger the body of water and the longer the wind blows from a single direction, the larger will be the swells. As these large swells approach the shallower water along the shores, drag increases along their bottoms causing the tops of the swells to become closer together. Thus, the net effect is that the water literally piles up against the shore, creating a storm surge.
Therefore, hurricane-force winds blowing from the Atlantic Ocean toward the Eastern Shore for several days can push a devastating storm surge into low coastal areas, overwhelming natural protective dunes. This process is precisely what happened with Superstorm Sandy between October 27-31.
Not since Hurricane Katrina struck the Louisiana and Mississippi coasts in 2005 has there been greater coastal damage from a storm surge than Sandy’s damage. Katrina was one of the top five deadliest Atlantic hurricanes with a documented 1,833 dead. By far, the majority of Katrina’s fatalities were caused by the storm surge that overtopped the levies and flooded New Orleans’ low Ninth Ward. The protective dikes were overwhelmed by the surge that reached 25 to 28 feet (7.6 to 8.5 m) above normal sea level.
Additional factors played supporting roles in Superstorm Sandy’s increased storm surge. As the counterclockwise rotating storm made landfall on the New Jersey and New York coasts, the winds on the north side of the storm came directly onshore driving the full force of the surge onto the shoreline. In addition, the landfall coincided precisely with the high tide associated with a full moon (spring tide). As the moon lines up on the opposite side of the Earth from the sun during a full moon (syzygy), the gravitational pull between the two intensifies, resulting in higher tides.
Few who endured the direct affects of coastal flooding associated with Sandy’s storm surge will soon recover from the personal and emotional damage. Storm surges, however, are the real destructive agents and represent the most dangerous phenomena associated with tropical storms.
Superstorm Sandy was a perfect example of the perfect storm, battering the densely populated East Coast with impunity.


Sunday, December 9, 2012

Geography students at UW-Eau Claire explore the Southwest

From  Leader-Telegram:  Geography students at UW-Eau Claire explore the Southwest

Sandy beaches, ocean views, huge sand dunes and military bunkers were the backdrop for part of a recent UW-Eau Claire geography field seminar trip to the Southwest region of the United States.
A student field research project at the Fort Ord Dunes in Marina, Calif. - a former World War I military post that was converted into a state park in 2009 - focused on how giant coastal sand dunes formed over cement bunkers and was the first research to be conducted in the new park.
UW-Eau Claire senior Meghan Kelly, a geography major from Mankato, Minn., said studying the dunes was her favorite part of the trip.
"I am most interested in cultural and human geography so my research focused on the geographical history of the dunes and the human impact on the environment," Kelly said. "Dunes form in a certain way, but the geography of this area makes for a more complicated process to study."
The class collaborated with graduate students from California State University, East Bay, and used ground-penetrating radar to study the layering effects of dunes. Students from both universities continue to share and analyze data that was collected for their research, which will be presented at UW-Eau Claire's Student Research Day and the 2013 Association of American Geographers conference.
"Having the opportunity to actually use tools, such as GPR, in the field is a great skill to add to my resume," Kelly said. "None of us have ever used it before, so it was an exciting experience and really took learning beyond the classroom."
Harry Jol, UW-Eau Claire professor of geography, and Martin Goettl, a geospatial technology facilitator at the university, stressed the importance of giving students field experience during their undergraduate education.
"Students developed and processed information differently because they experienced it," Goettl said. "They gained true knowledge of what they were working with and had hands-on experience with geospatial technology."
Phil Larson, a 2008 UW-Eau Claire alumnus and 2000 graduate of Prescott High School who currently is pursuing his doctorate, accompanied the class on the recent trip. He graduated from UW-Eau Claire with a comprehensive major in geography-resource management and a minor in geology and is currently a doctoral student at Arizona State University, working as a geomorphologist.
Field seminars helped prepare him for graduate school, Larson said.
"Not only did they provide useful methodological approaches to varied topics within earth science, they were my introduction to the rigors of the academic publication and research process," Larson said.
Larson certainly made an impression on senior geography major Jackson Becker, of Rochester, Minn. He now plans to follow Larson's path to graduate school.
"Seeing what Phil is doing in graduate school made me really excited," Becker said. "This trip has taught me to look at things in more detail, which is really important in geography."
The class traveled to geographically significant places of interest during the 10-day immersion experience, such as Yosemite, Death Valley and Zion national parks. The final destination was the Grand Canyon, where Larson introduced the class to his colleague, John Douglass, a prominent geographer with alternative theories on the development of the canyon.
Like Larson, Douglass encouraged future geographers to look beyond what is in textbooks and think about new ways of explaining geographical phenomena. Douglass presented the class with the "lake overflow theory," which suggests that over millions of years, rivers from mountains to the east of the Grand Canyon poured water and sediment into a large basin in the northeast side of the canyon, eventually spilling over a low point in the ridge causing the formation.
Becker said he was fascinated by the theory Douglas presented.
"I really got to see geography in action," Becker said. "I always thought science was all figured out, but then here is this scientist teaching us about a cutting-edge theory."
Field research trips are not common among undergraduate programs. Immersion experiences receive financial support from UW-Eau Claire's Blugold Commitment, a student-supported differential tuition increase designed to enhance student learning.
"Opportunities for field research are what make UW-Eau Claire such a unique university," Jol said. "Besides developing academic skills, students learned how to work as a team under intense conditions."
Becker said actually seeing the topics he and other students study in class has helped him gain a better understanding of them.
"No matter what field you're studying, going out and experiencing it firsthand makes it all so much clearer. I couldn't be happier that I went on this trip."



Wednesday, December 5, 2012

Geography bee winner maps out plan for next round

From the Advertiser-Tribune:  Geography bee winner maps out plan for next round

Eighth-grader Pranav Parsi was the winner of the first round of the 2013 National Geographic Bee Tuesday at Tiffin Middle School.

"I am very proud and excited," Parsi said.

About 600 students at the middle school competed in seven rounds of preliminary classroom competitions resulting in 10 finalists who competed in the final round.

Parsi's main goal out of this competition is to have fun and learn more about geography.

"I had confidence, but I didn't think I was going to win," Parsi said.

Parsi was in a deadlock and had to enter in a tie-breaker round with second-place winner Catherine Stover.

After several rounds, Parsi came out on top.

Students were asked a series of questions such as "To visit St. Patrick's cathedral in Dublin and enjoy the Arts Festival in Kilkenny, you would travel to what country?" and "Which Canadian province produces more than half of the country's manufactured goods?"

The other finalists were sixth-graders Mya Alvarado, Kayla Reuter and Gavin Robison; seventh-graders Xavier Noftz, Logan O'Donnell and Browning Riley; and eighth-graders Dathan Liming and Jeffery Morehart.

Parsi received a certificate and a National Geographic Society medal. He also will have his name engraved on a plaque to be kept in the Tiffin Middle School trophy case.
Other contestants all received certificates from the society.

The bee moderator and score keeper was Paula Zirm, gifted education coordinator; reader, Frank Barber of; and time keeper and judge, Joe Moore, director of the
International Cultural Center.

Parsi will have to take a written assessment to advance to the next level of competition to be held at Ohio State University.

For the test, Parsi said he will study and look over National Geographic books.

"Personally, I think that it is great for the students to have the opportunity to express their talents," Zirm said.

Following state competitions, winners will be eligible to win the national championship and its first prize, a $25,000 college scholarship. Host of "Jeopardy!" Alex Trebek will moderate the national finals May 22.

The winner also will receive a lifetime membership in the National Geographic Society and a trip to the Galapagos Islands, courtesy of Lindbald Expeditions and National Geographic.

This is the 25th year the National Geographic Society has held the geography bee for students in fourth through eighth grades in thousands of schools across the United States and in the five U.S. territories as well as in the Department of Defense schools around the world.

The national 2013 bee is sponsored by Google. Tiffin Middle School bee was sponsored by the Office of Gifted Education, The International Cultural Center and TMS.


All Over the Map: 10 Ways to Teach About Geography

From the New York Times: All Over the Map: 10 Ways to Teach About Geography

Geography frequently takes a back seat to history in the social studies classroom, but teaching geographic literacy is essential if students are going to understanding the challenges and opportunities of our complex world.
We have created 10 activities for teaching about geography using Times content, all related to the National Geography Standards, which were produced by the Geography Education National Implementation Project.
Our list is a grab-bag of ideas — from designing maps to analyzing border conflicts — and teachers can use the activities in any order, or as a road map for tracking ongoing coverage of geography-related issues.

1. Start with Geography Bingo: Use this BINGO card, which lists many of the geography standards, and find examples of stories from The New York Times that take on topics like migration, culture and ecosystems in various ways. When you have a diagonal, horizontal or vertical row of examples, you have “Bingo!” Students can search either a print copy of the paper or the online archives. (Each of the concepts in the squares was taken from the National Geography Standards.)
2. People use mental maps to understand the world. Every time you memorize a route to the grocery store or plot a route through the subway, you’re using a mental map. It’s one of the key tools a geographically skilled person uses to navigate their world. Read these stories on the science of mental mapping and the risks of losing such skills because of technology. Then ask students to think of a time when they got lost or figured out how to find something, drawing and annotating their own mental maps to tell the story. Post them in a classroom “Atlas of the Mind” exhibit.
3. Some maps are better than others. What exactly is a ‘map,’ and what does it do? Ask students to define the term. Then look at these examples of maps in The New York Times that use technology, symbols or images to broaden our understanding. Ask students to explain what each map shows, and how it conveys more information than a simple road map. Then students can brainstorm and design their own maps of a place they know well, a location described in a film or novel, or an imaginary place, using similar methods to convey detail and enhance people’s understanding.
4. Groups struggle over boundaries. Palestinians and Israelis have struggled for generations over the question of borders. Earlier this month the United Nations General Assembly voted to grant Palestine nonmember observer status, just a week after the latest cease-fire in the conflict and 65 years after the U.N. first called for the creation of separate Jewish and Arab nations in the land then known as Palestine. Why has it taken so long to draw one map? Ask students to brainstorm the factors that have kept Palestinians and Israelis from reaching a final agreement on territory and borders. Then watch this series of five videos, noting the arguments and obstacles cited by each side. Does the conflict seem intractable, or do you see signs of progress?

As a culminating activity, ask students to look for other examples of boundary conflicts in the Borderlines blog at The New York Times, and hold a class contest to find the most interesting or compelling examples that no one has ever heard of.
5. Culture affects perceptions and stereotypes of other places? Everyone holds opinions about other cultures, and they can easily lead to misunderstandings or disputes. Lead students through a safe introductory discussion of stereotyping. Then read highlights from this interview of a business executive who has learned from his mistakes working in Asia and this story about perceptions about immigration in Europe, and discuss the main points or lessons of each story. Ask students to search the archives and track coverage in The New York Times for examples of stereotyping in all cultures, gathering examples and making presentations on how people can resist or counteract this all-too-human tendency.

6. The world’s economy is interconnected, for good and ill. It’s old news that globalization has sent many American jobs overseas. But how exactly does the process work, and what happens when there’s a glitch? Watch this video on the iPhone economy, which explains what happens when the United States gains (or loses) 1,000 manufacturing jobs. Then read stories about how floods in Thailand and an earthquake and tsunami in Japan threw a monkey wrench in the global supply chain. Ask students to make up a fictional American company that produces a very desirable electronic product, and appoint themselves to the job of vice president in charge of logistics and supplies. Write a memo to your boss recommending a long-term strategy for ensuring that your supply chain is never interrupted for long by an international disaster.
7. Geography isn’t just about places on a map; it’s about the people, culture, history and landscape of those places. And every vacation or travel story provides an opportunity to gather information and describe those places. Read some examples of colorful, descriptive writing in the Travel Section of The New York Times, like the Frugal Traveler blog and the Journeys columns. Then ask students to write their own travel stories about a place they’ve visited, either locally or farther from home, using vivid examples and description to help readers fully imagine that place.
8. People change or modify the environment for better or worse. Since the dawn of time, populations have grown and expanded. Read about the growth of cities within the Brazilian rain forest, and watch a video about efforts in Paraguay to protect similar woodlands. Then explore the Dot Earth blog at The New York Times to find more stories about the effort to balance environmental and human needs, like this project by scientists to map gas leaks in cities. Ask students to pick a topic related to humanity’s management of the environment and global resources, track coverage and identify the most promising solutions, presenting their findings in a Sustainability Fair.
9. Physical systems affect or threaten people. From storms and earthquakes to global warming, it’s clear that the physical environment exerts a powerful effect on people. Sometimes, as with Hurricane Sandy, the impact is destructive. But environmental challenges also offer opportunities for people to create new industries and systems to provide a safer future. Brainstorm with students on whether the New York City metropolitan region ought to take steps to prevent future storm-related flooding, or simply move the city to higher ground. Then read this story on floodgates in Connecticut, a proposal for inflatable subway-stoppers and this Room for Debate feature. As a culminating activity, students can write letters to local officials suggesting the wisest policy.
10. People settle or migrate to new places. People make decisions on where to live for all kinds of reasons; some are pulled to a new destination, while others are pushed or blocked from leaving by factors beyond their control. Divide students into small groups, and assign each group to read one of these stories about migration trends within the United States, Asia, Europe and Latin America, or find their own stories in the archives of The New York Times. For each story, students can fill in a Post-it note under the heading “Pushed,” “ Pulled” or “Blocked,” summarizing the situation and posting it on a class map of the world. Each group can then present their findings to the class.


Monday, December 3, 2012

EU-China Geographical Indications – "10 plus 10" project is now complete

From Europa EU:  EU-China Geographical Indications – "10 plus 10" project is now complete

A project aiming at ensuring protection of 10 famous EU food names in China, the biggest consumer market in the world, has now been finalised. "Grana Padano", "Prosciutto di Parma" and "White Stilton cheese" / "Blue Stilton cheese" were the last of 10 EU names that have been protected as Geographical Indications in China as part of the so-called "10+10 project". In parallel, the European Commission has examined and registered 10 Chinese food names with the last 2 Chinese names "Pinggu da Tao" (peach) and "Dongshan Bai Lu Sun" (asparagus) receiving protected status in the EU as Geographical Indications. These 10 Chinese names have been added to the more than 1000 names of agricultural products and foodstuffs, which are protected in the EU (among them 13 non-EU GIs). Not only does the GI system provide an important protection against imitations, but it is also known to be a useful marketing tool.
Commissioner Cioloş welcomed the completion of the project: "The EU and China have rich traditions in the production of quality products, and the GI system is a good way of highlighting these regional traditions to consumers. China is a key future export market for EU food products. The completion of the 10+10 is an important step in the process towards a better protection in China of EU Geographical Indications for agricultural products and foodstuffs. We are now looking to build on this success through negotiating a broader bilateral agreement on GIs, which we hope to conclude in the course of 2013."
The pilot project started in July 2007 when both the EU (European Commission) and China (AQSIQ1) formally lodged applications for the protection of 10 agriculture GIs in each other's territories. Since then, each of the Chinese GIs has undergone examination, including the right of any interested party to oppose registration. While the geographical indications systems are similar, significant differences in procedures and linguistic problems had to be overcome. The process was given an additional boost when EU Agriculture Commissioner Dacian Cioloș visited China in 2010, including a trip to see the production of Longjing Tea.
In terms of value, China is among the 5 most important export markets of EU GI products (agricultural products, foodstuffs, wines and spirits). In 2010 the total value of GI exports to China amounted to more than € 650 million2. Wines and spirits represent the biggest part in terms of value: between 2005 and 2010 the exports of EU GI wines and spirits to China increased fourfold, i.e. by more than 400%.


Sunday, December 2, 2012

TX: Ed briefs: Geography bee slated for Dec. 5; Pacelli Honor Roll announced

From Austin Daily Herald:  Ed briefs: Geography bee slated for Dec. 5; Pacelli Honor Roll announced

Local fourth- through eighth-grade students at Ellis Middle School, Banfield Elementary, Neveln Elementary, Southgate Elementary and Sumner Elementary will compete Dec. 5 to test their knowledge of the world’s geography and cultures. The students took a qualifying test the first week of November.
The contest is designed to encourage teachers to include geography in their classrooms, spark student interest and increase public awareness about geography. For more information, visit
Contact David Wolff at 507-460-1600 or 507-1912 with questions. For specific times and locations, call the site coordinators: Ellis Middle School, Derik Gustafson, 460-1500; Banfield Elementary School, Karla Carroll, 460-1200; Neveln Elementary School, David Wolff, 460-1600; Southgate Elementary School, Sherrie Voigt, 460-1300; Sumner Elementary School, Megan Higgins, 460-1100.